Volume 1, Issue 4, October 2013, Page: 51-58
Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Hiatus Hernia: Overview and Authors' Perspective
Corinne Owers, Department of Upper GI Surgery, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, South Yorkshire UK, S5 7AU
Roger Ackroyd, Department of Upper GI Surgery, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, South Yorkshire UK, S5 7AU
Received: Sep. 5, 2013;       Published: Oct. 30, 2013
DOI: 10.11648/j.js.20130104.12      View  2827      Downloads  180
Abstract
Hiatus hernia and GORD is a common problem, with many different approaches to treatment. Management has changed dramatically over the years as new and varied treatments have become available. The treatment differs between countries depending on the availability of the various therapies. Overall, medical therapy is undoubtedly the commonest form of treatment, with surgery being used as second line therapy or for intractable symptoms. This paper provides an overview of reflux disease and the available treatments, as well as describing the most common surgical techniques, providing the practitioner with guidance as to when surgery may be a viable option.
Keywords
Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux, Management of Reflux Disease, Para-Oesophageal Hiatus Hernia
To cite this article
Corinne Owers, Roger Ackroyd, Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Hiatus Hernia: Overview and Authors' Perspective, Journal of Surgery. Vol. 1, No. 4, 2013, pp. 51-58. doi: 10.11648/j.js.20130104.12
Reference
[1]
Dent J, El-Serag HB, Wallander MA, Johansson S. Epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review. Gut. 2005;54(5):710-7.
[2]
NICE. Dyspepsia: managing adults in primary care. April 2006 Contract No.: 4.
[3]
Dodds WJ, Dent J, Hogan WJ, Helm JF, Hauser R, Patel GK, et al. Mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with reflux esophagitis. N Engl J Med. 1982;307(25):1547-52.
[4]
Friedenberg FK, Xanthopoulos M, Foster GD, Richter JE. The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103(8):2111-22.
[5]
El-Serag H. Role of obesity in GORD-related disorders. Gut. 2008;57(3):281-4.
[6]
Kaltenbach T, Crockett S, Gerson LB. Are lifestyle measures effective in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease? An evidence-based approach. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(9):965-71.
[7]
Bland K. Paraesophageal hiatus hernias. Limited S-VL, editor. Surgery of the esophagus and stomach2011.
[8]
Ronkainen J, Aro P, Storskrubb T, Johansson SE, Lind T, Bolling-Sternevald E, et al. Prevalence of Barrett's esophagus in the general population: an endoscopic study. Gastroenterology. 2005;129(6):1825-31.
[9]
Cameron AJ. Epidemiology of Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma. Dis Esophagus. 2002;15(2):106-8.
[10]
Marano S, Mattacchione S, Paltrinieri G, Palombi L, Mingarelli V, Tosato F. A three-year experience of the Referral Center for Surgical Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Minerva Chir. 2011;66(2):77-85.
[11]
Murray L, Watson P, Johnston B, Sloan J, Mainie IM, Gavin A. Risk of adenocarcinoma in Barrett's oesophagus: population based study. BMJ. 2003;327(7414):534-5.
[12]
C H. Massive incarcerated Hiatus Hernia. Churchill Livingstone NY, editor. Esophageal surgery1995.
[13]
Smith A, Dickerman R, McGuire C, JW E, McConathy W, HF P. Pressure-overload-induced sliding hiatal hernia in power athletes. J Clin Gastroenterol. ; 1999. p. 352-4.
[14]
Nagaya M, Akatsuka H, Kato J. Gastroesophageal reflux occuring after repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 1994;29(11):1447-51.
[15]
Gordon C, Kang JY, Neild PJ, Maxwell JD. The role of the hiatus hernia in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004;20(7):719-32.
[16]
Stanciu C, Bennett JR. Smoking and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Br Med J. 1972;3(5830):793-5.
[17]
Nocon M, Labenz J, Willich SN. Lifestyle factors and symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux -- a population-based study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;23(1):169-74.
[18]
Anderson LA, Cantwell MM, Watson RG, Johnston BT, Murphy SJ, Ferguson HR, et al. The association between alcohol and reflux esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2009;136(3):799-805.
[19]
Tack J, Sifrim D. Anti-relaxation therapy in GORD. Gut. 2002;50(1):6-7.
[20]
Bradshaw J, Brittain RT, Clitherow JW, Daly MJ, Jack D, Price BJ, et al. Ranitidine (AH 19065): a new potent, selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist [proceedings]. Br J Pharmacol. 1979;66(3):464P.
[21]
Venables TL, Newland RD, Patel AC, Hole J, Wilcock C, Turbitt ML. Omeprazole 10 milligrams once daily, omeprazole 20 milligrams once daily, or ranitidine 150 milligrams twice daily, evaluated as initial therapy for the relief of symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in general practice. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997;32(10):965-73.
[22]
Forgacs I, Loganayagam A. Overprescribing proton pump inhibitors. BMJ. 2008;336(7634):2-3.
[23]
Gough AL, Long RG, Cooper BT, Fosters CS, Garrett AD, Langworthy CH. Lansoprazole versus ranitidine in the maintenance treatment of reflux oesophagitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1996;10(4):529-39.
[24]
Parsonnet J, Friedman GD, Vandersteen DP, Chang Y, Vogelman JH, Orentreich N, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of gastric carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1991;325(16):1127-31.
[25]
Scarpa M, Angriman I, Prando D, Polese L, Ruffolo C, Pilon F, et al. Helicobacter pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross sectional study. Hepatogastroenterology. 2011;58(105):69-75.
[26]
Peek RM, Blaser MJ. Helicobacter pylori and gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002;2(1):28-37.
[27]
Raghunath A, Hungin AP, Wooff D, Childs S. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: systematic review. BMJ. 2003;326(7392):737.
[28]
Chourasia D, Misra A, Tripathi S, Krishnani N, Ghoshal UC. Patients with Helicobacter pylori infection have less severe gastroesophageal reflux disease: a study using endoscopy, 24-hour gastric and esophageal pH metry. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2011;30(1):12-21.
[29]
Yeh RW, Triadafilopoulos G. Endoscopic antireflux therapy: the Stretta procedure. Thorac Surg Clin. 2005;15(3):395-403.
[30]
Torquati A, Houston HL, Kaiser J, Holzman MD, Richards WO. Long-term follow-up study of the Stretta procedure for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Surg Endosc. 2004;18(10):1475-9.
[31]
O'Boyle CJ, Watson DI, Jamieson GG, Myers JC, Game PA, Devitt PG. Division of short gastric vessels at laparoscopic nissen fundoplication: a prospective double-blind randomized trial with 5-year follow-up. Ann Surg. 2002;235(2):165-70.
[32]
Chen YK, Raijman I, Ben-Menachem T, Starpoli AA, Liu J, Pazwash H, et al. Long-term outcomes of endoluminal gastroplication: a U.S. multicenter trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;61(6):659-67.
[33]
NICE. Endoscopic injection of bulking agents for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. 2004.
[34]
Stylopoulos N, Rattner DW. The history of hiatal hernia surgery: from Bowditch to laparoscopy. Ann Surg. 2005;241(1):185-93.
[35]
Spechler SJ, Lee E, Ahnen D, Goyal RK, Hirano I, Ramirez F, et al. Long-term outcome of medical and surgical therapies for gastroesophageal reflux disease: follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;285(18):2331-8.
[36]
Ackroyd R, Watson DI, Majeed AW, Troy G, Treacy PJ, Stoddard CJ. Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic versus open fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Br J Surg. 2004;91(8):975-82.
[37]
Lundell L, Miettinen P, Myrvold HE, Hatlebakk JG, Wallin L, Malm A, et al. Seven-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial comparing proton-pump inhibition with surgical therapy for reflux oesophagitis. Br J Surg. 2007;94(2):198-203.
[38]
Watson DI, Jamieson GG, Devitt PG, Kennedy JA, Ellis T, Ackroyd R, et al. A prospective randomized trial of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with anterior vs posterior hiatal repair. Arch Surg. 2001;136(7):745-51.
[39]
Cameron I, Stoddard J, Treacy P, Patterson J, Stoddard C. Long-term symptomatic follow up after Lind fundoplication. Br J Surg. 2000;87(3):362-73.
[40]
Shaw JM, Bornman PC, Callanan MD, Beckingham IJ, Metz DC. Long-term outcome of laparoscopic Nissen and laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease: a prospective, randomized trial. Surg Endosc. 2010;24(4):924-32.
[41]
Fibbe C, Layer P, Keller J, Strate U, Emmermann A, Zornig C. Esophageal motility in reflux disease before and after fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, clinical, and manometric study. Gastroenterology. 2001;121(1):5-14.
[42]
Chrysos E, Tsiaoussis J, Zoras OJ, Athanasakis E, Mantides A, Katsamouris A, et al. Laparoscopic surgery for gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with impaired esophageal peristalsis: total or partial fundoplication? J Am Coll Surg. 2003;197(1):8-15.
[43]
Hagedorn C, Lönroth H, Rydberg L, Ruth M, Lundell L. Long-term efficacy of total (Nissen-Rossetti) and posterior partial (Toupet) fundoplication: results of a randomized clinical trial. J Gastrointest Surg. 2002;6(4):540-5.
[44]
Lundell L, Abrahamsson H, Ruth M, Sandberg N, Olbe LC. Lower esophageal sphincter characteristics and esophageal acid exposure following partial or 360 degrees fundoplication: results of a prospective, randomized, clinical study. World J Surg. 1991;15(1):115-20; discussion 21.
[45]
Segol P, Hay JM, Pottier D. [Surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux: which operation to choose: Nissen, Toupet or Lortat-Jacob? A multicenter randomized trial]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1989;13(11):873-9.
[46]
Thor KB, Silander T. A long-term randomized prospective trial of the Nissen procedure versus a modified Toupet technique. Ann Surg. 1989;210(6):719-24.
[47]
Zornig C, Strate U, Fibbe C, Emmermann A, Layer P. Nissen vs Toupet laparoscopic fundoplication. Surg Endosc. 2002;16(5):758-66.
[48]
Lundell L, Abrahamsson H, Ruth M, Rydberg L, Lönroth H, Olbe L. Long-term results of a prospective randomized comparison of total fundic wrap (Nissen-Rossetti) or semifundoplication (Toupet) for gastro-oesophageal reflux. Br J Surg. 1996;83(6):830-5.
[49]
Strate U, Emmermann A, Fibbe C, Layer P, Zornig C. Laparoscopic fundoplication: Nissen versus Toupet two-year outcome of a prospective randomized study of 200 patients regarding preoperative esophageal motility. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(1):21-30.
[50]
Booth MI, Stratford J, Jones L, Dehn TC. Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic total (Nissen) versus posterior partial (Toupet) fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease based on preoperative oesophageal manometry. Br J Surg. 2008;95(1):57-63.
[51]
Mickevicius A, Endzinas Z, Kiudelis M, Jonaitis L, Kupcinskas L, Maleckas A, et al. Influence of wrap length on the effectiveness of Nissen and Toupet fundoplication: a prospective randomized study. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(10):2269-76.
[52]
Guérin E, Bétroune K, Closset J, Mehdi A, Lefèbvre JC, Houben JJ, et al. Nissen versus Toupet fundoplication: results of a randomized and multicenter trial. Surg Endosc. 2007;21(11):1985-90.
[53]
Jobe BA, Wallace J, Hansen PD, Swanstrom LL. Evaluation of laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication as a primary repair for all patients with medically resistant gastroesophageal reflux. Surg Endosc. 1997;11(11):1080-3.
[54]
Patti MG, Robinson T, Galvani C, Gorodner MV, Fisichella PM, Way LW. Total fundoplication is superior to partial fundoplication even when esophageal peristalsis is weak. J Am Coll Surg. 2004;198(6):863-9; discussion 9-70.
[55]
Khan M, Smythe A, Globe J, Stoddard C, Ackroyd R. Randomized controlled trial oflaparoscopic anterior versus posterior fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. ANZ J Surg. 2010;80(7-8):500-5.
[56]
Rydberg L, Ruth M, Abrahamsson H, Lundell L. Tailoring antireflux surgery: A randomized clinical trial. World J Surg. 1999;23(6):612-8.
[57]
Cai W, Watson DI, Lally CJ, Devitt PG, Game PA, Jamieson GG. Ten-year clinical outcome of a prospective randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic Nissen versus anterior 180( degrees ) partial fundoplication. Br J Surg. 2008;95(12):1501-5.
[58]
Engström C, Lönroth H, Mardani J, Lundell L. An anterior or posterior approach to partial fundoplication? Long-term results of a randomized trial. World J Surg. 2007;31(6):1221-5; discussion 6-7.
[59]
Yang H, Watson DI, Lally CJ, Devitt PG, Game PA, Jamieson GG. Randomized trial of division versus nondivision of the short gastric vessels during laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication: 10-year outcomes. Ann Surg. 2008;247(1):38-42.
[60]
Engström C, Blomqvist A, Dalenbäck J, Lönroth H, Ruth M, Lundell L. Mechanical consequences of short gastric vessel division at the time of laparoscopic total fundoplication. J Gastrointest Surg. 2004;8(4):442-7.
[61]
Blomqvist A, Dalenbäck J, Hagedorn C, Lönroth H, Hyltander A, Lundell L. Impact of complete gastric fundus mobilization on outcome after laparoscopic total fundoplication. J Gastrointest Surg. 2000;4(5):493-500.
[62]
Chrysos E, Tzortzinis A, Tsiaoussis J, Athanasakis H, Vasssilakis J, Xynos E. Prospective randomized trial comparing Nissen to Nissen-Rossetti technique for laparoscopic fundoplication. Am J Surg. 2001;182(3):215-21.
[63]
Gad El-Hak N, Abo Zied M, Aboelenen A, Fouad A, Abd Alla T, El-Shoubary M, et al. Short gastric vessels division in Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication. Hepatogastroenterology. 2005;52(66):1742-7.
[64]
Davis SS. Current controversies in paraesophageal hernia repair. Surg Clin North Am. 2008;88(5):959-78, vi.
[65]
Geagea T. Laparoscopic Nissen's fundoplication: preliminary report on ten cases. Surg Endosc. 1991;5(4):170-3.
[66]
Dallemagne B, Weerts JM, Jehaes C, Markiewicz S, Lombard R. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication: preliminary report. Surg Laparosc Endosc. 1991;1(3):138-43.
[67]
Perttilä J, Salo M, Ovaska J, Grönroos J, Lavonius M, Katila A, et al. Immune response after laparoscopic and conventional Nissen fundoplication. Eur J Surg. 1999;165(1):21-8.
[68]
Heikkinen TJ, Haukipuro K, Bringman S, Ramel S, Sorasto A, Hulkko A. Comparison of laparoscopic and open Nissen fundoplication 2 years after operation. A prospective randomized trial. Surg Endosc. 2000;14(11):1019-23.
[69]
Nilsson G, Larsson S, Johnsson F. Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic versus open fundoplication: blind evaluation of recovery and discharge period. Br J Surg. 2000;87(7):873-8.
[70]
Chrysos E, Tsiaoussis J, Athanasakis E, Zoras O, Vassilakis JS, Xynos E. Laparoscopic vs open approach for Nissen fundoplication. A comparative study. Surg Endosc. 2002;16(12):1679-84.
[71]
Salminen PT, Hiekkanen HI, Rantala AP, Ovaska JT. Comparison of long-term outcome of laparoscopic and conventional nissen fundoplication: a prospective randomized study with an 11-year follow-up. Ann Surg. 2007;246(2):201-6.
[72]
Bais JE, Bartelsman JF, Bonjer HJ, Cuesta MA, Go PM, Klinkenberg-Knol EC, et al. Laparoscopic or conventional Nissen fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: randomised clinical trial. The Netherlands Antireflux Surgery Study Group. Lancet. 2000;355(9199):170-4.
[73]
Frantzides CT, Madan AK, Carlson MA, Stavropoulos GP. A prospective, randomized trial of laparoscopic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) patch repair vs simple cruroplasty for large hiatal hernia. Arch Surg. 2002;137(6):649-52.
[74]
Carlson MA, Richards CG, Frantzides CT. Laparoscopic prosthetic reinforcement of hiatal herniorrhaphy. Dig Surg. 1999;16(5):407-10.
[75]
Frantzides CT, Richards CG, Carlson MA. Laparoscopic repair of large hiatal hernia with polytetrafluoroethylene. Surg Endosc. 1999;13(9):906-8.
[76]
Hinder RA, Filipi CJ, Wetscher G, Neary P, DeMeester TR, Perdikis G. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is an effective treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Ann Surg. 1994;220(4):472-81; discussion 81-3.
[77]
Hunter JG, Trus TL, Branum GD, Waring JP, Wood WC. A physiologic approach to laparoscopic fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Ann Surg. 1996;223(6):673-85; discussion 85-7.
[78]
Peters JH, Heimbucher J, Kauer WK, Incarbone R, Bremner CG, DeMeester TR. Clinical and physiologic comparison of laparoscopic and open Nissen fundoplication. J Am Coll Surg. 1995;180(4):385-93.
[79]
Jamieson GG, Watson DI, Britten-Jones R, Mitchell PC, Anvari M. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Ann Surg. 1994;220(2):137-45.
[80]
Cuschieri A, Hunter J, Wolfe B, Swanstrom LL, Hutson W. Multicenter prospective evaluation of laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Preliminary report. Surg Endosc. 1993;7(6):505-10.
[81]
Broeders JA, Roks DJ, Draaisma WA, Vlek AL, Hazebroek EJ, Broeders IA, et al. Predictors of objectively identified recurrent reflux after primary Nissen fundoplication. Br J Surg. 2011;98(5):673-9.
[82]
Catarci M, Gentileschi P, Papi C, Carrara A, Marrese R, Gaspari AL, et al. Evidence-based appraisal of antireflux fundoplication. Ann Surg. 2004;239(3):325-37.
[83]
Oelschlager BK, Quiroga E, Parra JD, Cahill M, Polissar N, Pellegrini CA. Long-term outcomes after laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103(2):280-7; quiz 8.
[84]
Beck PE, Watson DI, Devitt PG, Game PA, Jamieson GG. Impact of gender and age on the long-term outcome of laparoscopic fundoplication. World J Surg. 2009;33(12):2620-6.
[85]
Cuenca-Abente F, Parra JD, Oelschlager BK. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: an alternative for recurrent paraesophageal hernias in obese patients. JSLS. 2006;10(1):86-9.
[86]
Morgenthal CB, Lin E, Shane MD, Hunter JG, Smith CD. Who will fail laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication? Preoperative prediction of long-term outcomes. Surg Endosc. 2007;21(11):1978-84.
[87]
Perez AR, Moncure AC, Rattner DW. Obesity adversely affects the outcome of antireflux operations. Surg Endosc. 2001;15(9):986-9.
[88]
Gutschow CA, Collet P, Prenzel K, Hölscher AH, Schneider PM. Long-term results and gastroesophageal reflux in a series of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. J Gastrointest Surg. 2005;9(7):941-8.
[89]
Tolonen P, Victorzon M, Niemi R, Mäkelä J. Does gastric banding for morbid obesity reduce or increase gastroesophageal reflux? Obes Surg. 2006;16(11):1469-74.
Browse journals by subject