Volume 7, Issue 5, October 2019, Page: 143-147
A 5-Year Review of the Presentation and Management of Urolithiasis in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital
Olufunmilade Omisanjo, Department of Surgery, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria; Department of Surgery, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria
Muftau Bioku, Department of Surgery, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria
Omolara Williams, Department of Surgery, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria; Department of Surgery, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria
Olufemi Akinola, Department of Surgery, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria
Fatai Balogun, Department of Surgery, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria
Stephen Ikuerowo, Department of Surgery, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria; Department of Surgery, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria
Received: May 23, 2019;       Accepted: Aug. 26, 2019;       Published: Sep. 16, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.js.20190705.16      View  42      Downloads  13
Abstract
Introduction: Urolithiasis has afflicted humans since centuries dating back to 4000BC, with the disease prevalence differing in various parts of the world. Contrary to earlier studies that depicted urinary stone disease as rare in Nigeria, recent reports have shown an increasing incidence. We aim to document the pattern and management of urinary tract calculi seen at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of urolithiasis managed at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Nigeria between January 2012 and December 2016. Variables analyzed were patients’ age, gender, presenting symptoms, investigations and modalities of treatment. Results: The clinical records of a total of seventy-six patients treated for urinary stone disease within the 5-year study period were available for review. The ages of the patients ranged from 2 years to 84 years with a mean age of 49.13 ± 16.27 years. The male to female ratio was 1.8:1. While the urinary bladder was the commonest site of the stone amongst our patients (n=37, 48.7%), 4 (5.3%) were found at multiple sites. All the patients had abdominal ultrasound and 57.9% had, in addition, a computerized tomography (CT) urography. Majority, (53.9%) were treated by open surgery. There was no statistically significant impact of gender on disease presentation (P=0.167) or treatment (P=0.8381). However the patients who had surgical treatment were significantly older than those who were treated conservatively (P=0.033). Conclusion: Urolithiasis in our region has become more common, mimicking the increasing prevalence reported in the West. Most of the cases of urinary tract stones are still successfully managed by open surgery and thus open stone surgery should be considered as a valid alternative to endourologic management techniques in resource poor regions lacking endoscopic facilities.
Keywords
Urolithiasis, Nigeria, Open Surgery
To cite this article
Olufunmilade Omisanjo, Muftau Bioku, Omolara Williams, Olufemi Akinola, Fatai Balogun, Stephen Ikuerowo, A 5-Year Review of the Presentation and Management of Urolithiasis in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital, Journal of Surgery. Vol. 7, No. 5, 2019, pp. 143-147. doi: 10.11648/j.js.20190705.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
López M, Hoppe B. History, epidemiology and regional diversities of urolithiasis. Pediatr Nephrol 2010; 25: 49-59.
[2]
Victoriano Romero, Kidney stones: A global picture of prevalence, incidence and associated risk factor. Review in Urology. 2010; 12 (2-3): e86-e96.
[3]
Sharma AP, Filler G. Epidemiology of pediatric urolithiasis. Indian J Urol 2010; 26: 516-22.
[4]
Esho JO. Experience with urinary calculus disease in Nigerians as seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Niger Med J 1976; 6: 18-22.
[5]
Mbonu O, Attah C, Ikeakor I. Urolithiasis in an African population. Int Urol Nephrol 1984; 16: 291-6.
[6]
Monu JU. Pattern of urolithiasis in Benin City, Nigeria. J Natl Med Assoc 1989; 81: 695-8.
[7]
Osegbe DN. The rise in urolithiasis in Nigeria. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 295: 1654.
[8]
Aji SA, Alhassan SU, Mohammed AM, Mashi SA. Urinary stone disease in Kano North Western Nigeria. Niger Med J 2011; 52: 83-5.
[9]
Ekwere PD. Urinary calculous disease in South-Eastern Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci 1995; 24: 289-95.
[10]
Emokpae MA, Gadzama AA. Anatomical distribution and biochemical composition of urolithiasis in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Int J Biol Chem Sci 2012; 6: 1158-66.
[11]
Mshelia DS, Gali BM, Naaya UH, Habu SA. Chemical composition of urinary calculi in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci 2005; 34: 185-8.
[12]
Adetayo FO, Saanu OO, Osegbe DN. Chemical composition of urinary calculi in Nigerians. Nig Q J Hosp Med 2004; 14: 143-6.
[13]
Ansari MS, Gupta NP. Impact of socioeconomic status in etiology and management of urinary stone disease. Urol Int 2003; 70: 255-61.
[14]
Vermooten V. Occurrence of renal calculi and their possible relation to diet as illustrated in South African Negroes. JAMA 1937; 109: 857.
[15]
Romero V, Akpinar H, Assimos DG. Kidney stones: A global picture of prevalence, incidence, and associated risk factors. Rev Urol 2010; 12: e86-96.
[16]
Soucie JM, Thun MJ, Coates RJ, McClellan W, Austin H. Demographic and geographic variability of kidney stones in the United States. Kidney Int 1994; 46: 893-9.
[17]
Khan AS, Rai ME, Gandapur, Pervaiz A, Shah AH, Hussain AA, et al. Epidemiological risk factors and composition of urinary stones in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2004; 16: 56-8.
[18]
Beukes GJ, de Bruiyn H, Vermaak WJ. Effect of changes in epidemiological factors on the composition and racial distribution of renal calculi. Br J Urol 1987; 60: 387-92.
[19]
Sas DJ, Hulsey TC, Shatat IF, Orak JK. Increasing incidence of kidney stones in children evaluated in the emergency department. J Pediatr 2010; 157: 132-7.
[20]
Sternberg K, Greenfield SP, Williot P, Wan J. Pediatric stone disease: An evolving experience. J Urol. 2005; 174: 1711-4.
[21]
Hesse AT (2009) Urinary Stones, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Recurrence. (3rd Edition). 2009, Basel, Switzerland.
[22]
Rahman GA, Akande AA, Mamudu NA. Giant vescical calculi: experience with management of two Nigerians. Nig J Surg. 2005; 7: 203-5.
[23]
Abubakar BM, Abubakar A, Suleiman IE, Makama BS, Abdulhafeez AA, Gashua MG. Pattern of Presentation and Management of Urolithiasis at Federal Medical Centre, Nguru, Nigeria. Bo Med J 2017; 14: (1) 63-70.
[24]
Meka IA, Ugonabo MC, Ebede SO, Agbo EO. Composition of uroliths in a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria. Afri Health Sci. 2018; 18 (2): 437-445. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v18i2.29.
[25]
Ghiculete D, Pace KT, Honey RJ. Limitations to ultrasound in the detection and measurement of urinary tract calculi. Urology 2010; 76: 295.
[26]
Heidenreich A, Desgrandschamps F, Terrier F. Modern approach of diagnosis and management of acute flank pain: review of all imaging modalities. Eur Urol. 2002; 41: 351.
[27]
Smith Bindman R, Chandra Aubin, John Bailitz, Rimon N Bengiamin, Carlos A Camargo, et al. Ultrasonography versus computed tomography for suspected nephrolithiasis. N Engl J Med. 2014; 371: 1100.
[28]
Pickard R, K Starr, G Maclennan, Thomas Lam, Ruth Thomas, et al. Medical expulsive therapy in adults with ureteric colic: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2015; 386: 341.
[29]
Ahmed AF, Gabr AH, Emara AA, Ali M, Abdel-Aziz AS, Alshahrani S. Factors predicting the spontaneous passage of a ureteric calculus of ≤10mm. Arab J Urol 2015; 13: 84-90.
[30]
Singh A, Alter HJ, Littlepage A. A systematic review of medical therapy to facilitate passage of ureteral calculi. Ann Emerg Med 2007; 50: 552-63.
[31]
Arain YS, Ali SA, Miraj M, Siddigwi AJ. Lower ureteral calculi, a bothering problem; is there any non-invasive therapy to get rid of them? Role of tamsulosin. J Med Sci 2014; 5: 37-40.
[32]
Raheem OA, Khandwala YS, Sur RL, Ghani KR, Denstedt JD. Burden of Urolithiasis: Trends in Prevalence, Treatments, and Costs. European Urology Focus. 2017; 3 (1): 18-26.
[33]
Eze KC, Irekpita E, Salami TA. Cost-effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in a poor resource setting: The Okada, Nigeria experience. Niger Med J. 2016 Jan-Feb; 57 (1): 44-48.
[34]
Cakici OU, Ener K, Keske M, Altinova S, Canda AE, Aldemir M, Ardicoglu A. Open stone surgery: a still-in-use approach for complex stone burden. Cent European J Urol. 2017 Jun 30; 70 (2): 179-184.
Browse journals by subject